Iskandarov, Mahmadruzi

Iskandarov was stripped of all previous state honors and awards, including revoking his rank of Major-General. The European Court of Human Rights established that Russian law enforcement authorities violated rights of a Tajik national which contributed to illegal extradition of Iskandarov to Tajikistan. The court ordered Russian law enforcement authorities to pay 30,000 euros to Iskandarov for moral damage and 3,000 euros for legal costs. However whether this has been paid is unclear (Asia-Plus, 2014).

Gender: .
State of concern: .

Who, Why and How exiled:

Former leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) and a presidential hopeful. Moved to Russia in August 2004, after a dispute with President Rahmon. Iskandarov had also headed Tojikgaz (Tajik state natural gas distributor) for several years (Asia-Plus,  2014).

Category of exile: . (Definitions here.)

Which stages experienced: Stage 1   Stage 2   Stage 3. (Definitions here.)
Date of most serious incident: 2005.
Violence experienced: .

Stage 1 details (accusations/ charges/ Interpol notice/ extradition requests):

The government had implicated Iskandarov in an attack on two government offices in Tojikobod in August 2004, resulting in his arrest In Russia, December 2004. Iskandarov was released by the Russian authorities two days later. (Human Rights Watch, 2005).

Stage 2 details (arrest/ detention/ extradition):

Iskandarov was arrested based on a warrant and abducted to Tajikistan, where his trial lasted more than two months. On 5th October 2005 Iskandarov was found guilty on six accounts- including terrorism, the embezzlement of state funds, possession of an illegal weapon- and sentenced to twenty three years in prison and fined 1.5 million soms (approximately U.S.$470,000). (Human Rights Watch, 2005).

Stage 3 details (attack/ abduction/ rendition/ torture/ assassination/ death):

He was abducted to Tajikistan and alleges having been beaten and mistreated in custody (Human Rights Watch,  2005).

Other actions during Stages 1–3 (dispossession/ overseas assets frozen/ intimidation/ action against associates/ …):

He was brought to Dushanbe under the name of Gennady Petrovich Balanin (TajInfo, n.d.)

International arrest warrant: .

Countries of transit, asylum and/or residence: .

Legal status (refugee/ asylum seeker/ resident):

Iskandarov claimed he had applied for refugee status after he was arrested in Russia on 3rd April 2005, but that he was kidnapped by the Russian police and flown back to Tajikistan (Human Rights Watch, 2005).

Current status:

He was sentenced to 23 years prison in Tajikistan (TajInfo, n.d)

In 2015 , after giving an interview to Radio Ozodi, he was transferred to a 'strict regime' prison in Vahdat (Asia-Plus, 2015).



Press sources:

Human Rights Watch, 2005. "Tajikistan Events of 2005".  [Online]. Available at:


Asia-Plus, "One of activists of former UTO, Mahmadruzi Iskandarov, is 60 years of age", 5th May 2014. [Online]. Available at: (Last accessed on the 30th March 2016)


Asia Plus. "Mahmadruzi Iskandarov was punished for an interview with Ozodi" 19th,August,2015. [Onine]. Available at:


TajInfo. n.d. "Махмадрузи Искандаров". [Online]. Available at:


Legal sources:

CASE OF ISKANDAROV v. RUSSIA, European Court of Human Rights, 23rd September 2010. (Last accessed on 30th March 2016)