Who, Why and How exiled: Ethnologist, historian and journalist living in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (Peyrouse, 2015: 78). In 1991, he helped to form and became leader of the liberal, opposition discussion group called ‘Paikhas’ (Amnesty International, 1997). This organisation was banned later in that year and Kadyrov was forced into exile in Moscow in 1993 (Peyrouse, 2015: 78; Amnesty International, 1997). Following continued repression in Moscow, Kayyrov fled to Norway in 1996 (Amnesty International, 1997).
Stage 1 details (accusations/ charges/ Interpol notice/ extradition requests): In 1992, Kadyrov was twice placed under house arrest to prevent him from attending human rights conferences in Kyrgzstan. He was also placed under constant surveillance by the Turkmen police. In 1994 he was formally banned from leaving the country (Amnesty International, 1997).
Other actions during Stages 1–3 (dispossession/ overseas assets frozen/ intimidation/ action against associates/ …): From 1993-1996, Kadyrov lived in Moscow, where he was informed that Turkmen authorities had approached Russian officials to attempt to extradite him back to Turkmenistan (Amnesty International, 1997). In 1996, he was granted refugee status in Norway. Initially Russian authorities would not issue emergency travel papers to allow him to leave the country, but after months of struggle and intervention by Amnesty International, he was allowed to leave later in the year (Amnesty International, 1997).
Current status: Died whilst in exile in 2016 (Chronicles of Turkmenistan, 2016).
Press sources: Amnesty International (1997). Refugees Human Rights have no borders AI Index: ACT 34/03/97. [online] Amnesty.org. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/156000/act340031997en.pdf [Accessed 14 Apr. 2018]. Chronicles of Turkmenistan (2016). Those who passed away in 2016. [online] Chronicles of Turkmenistan. Available at: https://en.hronikatm.com/2016/12/those-who-passed-away-in-2016/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2018]. Peyrouse, S. (2015). Turkmenistan: Strategies of Power, Dilemmas of Development. Oxford: Routledge.