Solih, Muhammad

Gender: .
State of concern: .

Who, Why and How exiled:

Exiled chairman of the banned opposition party (ERK- Freedom Party). In 1991 presendential elections Solih was the only one competing again Karimov, gathering 12.3% of votes (Human Rights Watch, 2006; Radio Free Europe, 2016).

Category of exile: . (Definitions here.)
Alleged affiliation: Erk Party.

Which stages experienced: Stage 1   Stage 2   not Stage 3. (Definitions here.)
Date of most serious incident: 2015.
Violence experienced: .

Stage 1 details (accusations/ charges/ Interpol notice/ extradition requests):

In December 1992 he was accused of foundation of ”Milliy Majlis” and in April 1993 was arrested by an accusation of high treason. But he was released as a result of international pressure under the written undertaking not to leave.  He managed to run away first to Azerbaijan and later to Turkey. He fled Uzbekistan and has political asylum in Norway in 1994. Solih was later accused of masterminding bombings in Tashkent in 1999, and sentenced at a trial in absentia to 15 years in prison ( Human Rights Watch, 2006; Radio Free Europe, 2015).

Stage 2 details (arrest/ detention/ extradition):

In 2001 Solih was arrested in Prague with alleged participation in terrorist activities connected to bombings that killed 16 people in Tashkent. The Czech police and Interpol arrested Solih at Ruzyně Airport due to international arrest warrant issued by the Uzbekistan Interpol bureau. On December 14, 2001, the Prague Municipal Court ruled it will not extradite Solih to Uzbekistan, as the Uzbek authorities failed to prove that Solih would be given a fair hearing ("New York Times. 13 December 2001).

In 2006, when travelling to London to meet with government officials and civil society groups, Swedish officials arrested Solih on an Interpol warrant, based on an extradition request posted by the Uzbek government (Human Rights Watch, 2006)

Three of Solih’s brothers – Komil, Muhammad, and Rashid Bekjonov – were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 10 to 15 years on politically motivated charges, reflecting the Uzbek government’s policy of “guilt by association”. According to a human rights activist who served time in prison along with Rashid and Muhammad Bekjonov, the brothers were subjected to particularly harsh treatment, including repeated torture, by prison authorities (Human Rights Watch, 2006).

Other actions during Stages 1–3 (dispossession/ overseas assets frozen/ intimidation/ action against associates/ …):

A plot to assassinate Muhammad Solih was reported to be discovered by the Turkish police in December 2015 ( Radio Free Europe, 2015).

International arrest warrant: .

Countries of transit, asylum and/or residence: , , , .

Legal status (refugee/ asylum seeker/ resident):

He received political asylum from Norway and is currently exiled in Turkey (Eurasianet, 2016).

Current status:

Remains in exile in Turkey.

Press sources:

Radio Free Europe, 2011.  "The Long Reach Of Uzbekistan's Authorities". 11 December, 2011. [Online]. Available at:

Eurasianet, 2016.  "Turkey Pursues a Reset with Uzbekistan", 17 november, 2016.[Online]. Available at:

Human Rights Watch, 2006. "Sweden: Uzbek Dissident’s Arrest Sign of Failed EU Policy. Ministers Should Expand Sanctions on Uzbekistan!, 17 May, 2006. [Online]. Available at:

New York Times, 2001. Uzbek Dissident Avoiding Jail With Help From Czech Soulmate". 13 December 2001. [Online]. Available at:

Radio Free Europe, 2016. ""Еще 20 лет диктатуры народ не выдержит", 3 September, 2016.[Online]. Available at: